Our immune system consists of several organs. It:
1. Tonsils and adenoids.
2. Thymus gland - thymus.
3. Lymph nodes.
4. The spleen.
5. The appendix.
6. Peye records in the intestine.
7. Bone marrow.
All of them produce or accumulate our main protective cells - lymphocytes (white blood cells).
As soon as the body is attacked by an infection, that is, pathogenic bacteria, microbes, viruses enter it, then the lymphocytes begin to produce antibodies.
These proteins are the weapons of our immunity - they attack the "invaders" and engage in battle with them.
If the immune system is healthy, the lymphocytes are strong and there are many of them, then the body leaves the fight as a winner.
Lymphocytes have an “immune memory." This means that if the microbe already seen once by them enters the body again, lymphocytes already meet it with a large number of antibodies and win faster and easier. Vaccinations are based on this principle.
If lymphocytes are the guardians of our health in the blood, then in the cells of the internal organs are their "colleagues" - macrophages, whose task is to immediately "arrest" bacteria that have fallen into the tissues.
The main enemies of our immune system are:
- Colds and infectious diseases. It turns out a vicious circle - the more often a person catches a cold, the more his immune system suffers, and the worse the body's immune response, the more often a person picks up an infection.
- Seasonal Hypovitaminosis (e.g. lack of vitamins D and C in winter).
- Stress. It is proved that with strong emotional and mental stress, not only increases the production of stress hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol, but also the production of the hormone acetylcholine, it is also called the "hormone of weakness", which makes the immune system of the human body more vulnerable.
- Hard dietsimbalance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Alcohol and cigarette abuse.
- Illiterate use of antibiotics.
When pathogenic bacteria and viruses penetrate into the blood, blood cells - lymphocytes - begin to produce protective antibodies. These proteins are the weapons of our immunity - they attack the "invaders" and engage in battle with them.
Elena Milovidova, immunologist:
- We are accustomed to attribute any ailments to a “decrease in immunity” and immediately purchase stimulants from the pharmacy. In fact, problems with the body's immune response arise in serious cases - after surgery, implantations, aggressive antibiotics.
Now "in fashion" various drugs based on interferons - substances that affect the immune metabolism. But we, immunologists, believe that drug immunostimulants are either generally useless, or - more serious drugs - are needed only according to indications, for example, with secondary immunodeficiency. Any illiterate stimulation leads to exhaustion. If you constantly boost the production of leukocytes with drugs, your own immune system will become lazy and simply lose its function. If you constantly stuff the body with all kinds of stimulants, it simply becomes a dependent, constantly waiting for "unemployment benefits". And then real problems with immunity may begin.
If your task is to cheer up and tone up, then it is better to use natural adaptogens (ginseng, Chinese magnolia vine, Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus, etc.). They enhance the synthesis of RNA and proteins (that is, the basis of our cells), activate metabolic enzymes and activate the work of the autonomic and endocrine systems, while not interfering with the immune system.
There is one more fashionable now (and not cheap) little thing - the "test for immune status", which is often sent to complaining about "reduced immunity." According to allergist-immunologist Professor Yuri Smolkin:
- “Test” can be for pregnancy or for a specific allergen. One test for immune status is not possible. And not needed. It makes sense to determine the immune status in patients with suspected severe violations in the immune regulation - with primary immunodeficiencies.
All other cases of a general definition of immune status with a large number of indicators are not advisable and are one way to get money from the population. And then such figures begin to "treat the analysis."
A competent doctor prescribes accurate studies of specific indicators, suggesting a violation.
In a good half of often sick children, for example, the problem of persistent colds is not in “bad” immunity, but in an unrecognized allergy. To find out, it is enough to take a blood test for immunoglobulin E and make skin tests.
How the immune system works
Immunity in translation from the Latin language - "getting rid of something." The human immune system is a complex mechanism that protects the body from diseases of various kinds, failures and disorders. It can be congenital, that is, when there is an initial resistance to some kind of ailment or negative external factor. There is also acquired immunity that arose in the process of human life and lasts for decades, and sometimes forever.
Bacteria and viruses that enter the body once causing the disease change our body at the cellular level. Now, having met the same enemy for the second time, the development of special antibodies begins, which allows you to quickly and effectively cope with the disease. If immunity was acquired as a result of an illness, then it is called active, and if by vaccination containing parts of cells or weakened bacteria, then passive. So, if you have had measles or chickenpox, then most likely you will never encounter them in your life.
There are two more types of immunity: specific and non-specific. In the second case, the body releases immunoglobulins and interferon, which is used in the fight against any microorganism, and in the first case, special substances are produced that can cope with a specific disease.
Immunity acts as a security system. He explores everything that enters the body from the outside world or those that are inside. At the slightest alarm, the fight begins with the intruder, that is, the virus or bacterium, fungi or parasites that mutated the cells. He does his best to neutralize it and remove it from the body. The immune system affects the entire human body at the cellular level and is provided by special organs and tissues:
- bone marrow located in human bones and engaged in hematopoiesis,
- the spleen, also responsible for blood formation and located in the abdominal cavity,
- lymph nodes located at the junction of the lymph vessels, responding to any inflammatory processes and infections,
- the thymus gland, which is the main organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest.
The immune system is closely related to all other body systems. With its failures, the whole body suffers: in insufficient quantities, blood is purified, toxins and toxins, as well as other harmful substances are removed, microflora in the digestive tract are disturbed, and nerve conduction and gas exchange in the lungs deteriorate. Good immunity does not allow one or another illness to get sick, and also greatly facilitates the course of the disease at the first collision of the body with it.
Reasons for a decrease in immunity
Most often, a person begins to think about
how to strengthen immunity folk remedies
or medications, when you often have to get sick with various viral and colds. But before carrying out any actions designed to make us stronger, increase the body's immune forces, it is necessary to find out the reasons for the decrease in immunity.
Experts talk about a huge number of constant or periodically occurring factors that adversely affect the body's defense. But the most striking of them should be considered:
- bad habits, including smoking and drinking alcohol,
- an unbalanced diet in which there are a lot of harmful substances or components that require long digestion,
- the use of drugs, for example, antibiotics, hormones,
- insufficient intake of important substances: vitamins, amino acids, trace elements,
- frequent overwork and stress
- insufficient fluid intake
- insufficient or inadequate rest,
- radiation background and poor environmental conditions,
- traumatic injuries, surgical interventions,
- long-term diseases of a chronic nature, for example, psoriasis, arthritis, diabetes, tumors,
- sedentary lifestyle,
Immunity in childhood
To strengthen immunity
in childhood, it is necessary to know that the mechanisms in this case work somewhat differently than in adults. Their formation ends only at the age of 14. Doctors distinguish several critical periods of childhood immunity:
- Up to 28 days, the child is under the influence of forces acquired from the mother during fetal development. As a rule, the baby is defenseless at this time more than anything before viruses.
- At 4-6 months, antibodies received from the mother begin to break down. It is during this period that vaccination and revaccination are carried out. Various diseases can occur, allergic reactions, inflammatory processes and intestinal infections are frequent.
- At 2 years old, the child actively learns the world, pulls everything in his mouth, which means that he gives a huge load to his body. It is during this period that congenital anomalies may appear, and the incidence of viral and infectious diseases will increase.
- At 4-6 years old, active immunity is already accumulated under the influence of vaccinations and previous diseases. But at the same time, during this period it is important to treat the diseases on time and correctly, because they run the risk of developing into chronic forms.
- At the age of 12-15, completion of the formation of immunity occurs. It is at this time that hormonal changes occur in girls and boys, and the organs of the immune system acquire their normal sizes.
Further lifestyle of an adult depends on the lifestyle of a child up to 14-15 years old, his habits and diet, activity, proper functioning of all internal organs and systems.
Symptoms of Immunity
The main symptoms of a decrease in defenses and the reason for finding the answer to the question,
how to strengthen the immunity of an adult with folk remedies
and drugs, the following symptoms may become:
- frequent illnesses of colds and viral ailments, such as flu, acute respiratory viral infections, acute respiratory infections (more than 4-6 times a year),
- overflow of colds into more serious diseases, for example, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media, tonsillitis,
- the appearance on the body of rashes, acne and ulcers,
- longer than normal course of various diseases,
- drowsiness or, conversely, difficulty sleeping,
- fatigue and weakness, not passing even after a good rest,
- exacerbation of diseases not previously manifested, for example, fungal skin lesions, herpes, the occurrence of papillomas and warts,
- digestion and stool problems,
- muscle and joint aches,
- unstable blood pressure
- the appearance of an apparent causeless subfebrile body temperature,
- bad mood, depression and even suicidal thoughts,
- increased aggressiveness and irritability.
All these signs that arose singly or in combination indicate that your immunity needs support.
General rules for strengthening the body's immune forces
In no case should you self-medicate. The immune system is a complex mechanism that, if not properly interfered, can fail. It is important to consult a specialist in a timely manner. In some cases, it is enough to follow the doctor’s general recommendations to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, but sometimes a thorough study and special
methods of increasing immunity
A specialist in a number of tests and analyzes makes an immunogram, which reflects a variety of characteristics from blood, saliva and urine to analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. But such a study does not always give results. It is useful for primary immunodeficiency, HIV and AIDS, cancer, as well as other diseases of an immune and autoimmune nature.
Here are the main ways to strengthen immunity and the recommendations of doctors who are desirable to observe in everyday life:
- To refuse from bad habits. Cigarettes, drugs and alcohol are not the best friends of health. And their systematic use leads to the destruction of the body, undermines the defenses, disrupts the functioning of all organs and systems. For example, smoking causes great harm to the respiratory, urogenital, and circulatory systems.
- Food should be balanced. In the diet should be enough of all the necessary elements for the functioning of the body and its rapid recovery.
- Maintaining an active lifestyle. If you often walk in the fresh air, constantly ventilate the room before going to bed and work in it, move a lot and do exercises, then you will not be afraid of frequent illnesses.
To strengthen immunity
It’s important not to overdo it - tedious physical activity can lead to the opposite effect.
Strengthening immunity folk remedies
and drinking plenty of fluids will help you to forget about ailments forever and feel great at any age.
Compliance with these rules is the best.
and save it for years to come.
Nutrition and immunity
Nutrition is of the utmost importance.
to increase immunity to adults
and children. It is important not only to choose the right diet, which will contain all the necessary trace elements and vitamins, but also to eat food regularly. Frequent diets and weight loss can cause significant damage to the body, cause malfunctions in the metabolism, immune and hormonal systems.
Experts recommend that when choosing a daily diet include the following products:
- protein suppliers: low-fat beef, fish, poultry, dairy and sour-milk products, nuts and seeds, legumes,
- suppliers of fats: vegetable and butter, fatty fish, avocados, nuts, chicken eggs,
- suppliers of complex carbohydrates: whole grains of pasta, rye and bran bread, cereals and legumes.
It is also important to consume fresh herbs, berries, fruits and vegetables, as they are rich in trace elements and vitamins, are quickly digested and easily absorbed. It is this kind of nutrition that helps to quickly increase immunity in an adult and a child. The lack of one component or another can lead to serious problems. For example, many losing weight exclude all fatty foods from their diet. But this is fundamentally wrong. After all, healthy fats are the first barrier to viruses and germs. They are necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system and brain, are responsible for the absorption of vitamins, the synthesis of sex hormones and the construction of intercellular membranes. Some types of fat are indispensable and are not synthesized by the body itself.
Also, folk remedies to increase immunity in adults, as well as specialists, argue that it is important to include foods containing vitamin C in your diet all year round, and especially in the season of colds and viral diseases. This substance increases the body's resistance to infection, triggers tissue regeneration, has a positive effect on blood and metabolism. Most of it is found in citrus fruits, peas and legumes, red fruits, cauliflower.
What is worth giving up
To strengthen the immunity of adults, it is necessary to significantly reduce the amount of food consumed in food or to completely abandon such foods as:
- сладости и сдоба, содержащие большое количество масла, маргарина, трансгенных жиров,
- fast food,
- алкоголь и газированные сладкие напитки,
- food with flavorings and colorings, for example, yoghurts,
- canned foods containing large amounts of salt or other harmful substances,
- white bread and pastries,
- products containing preservatives and pesticides,
- sausages and sausages,
- smoked, fatty, salty, too spicy food,
- popcorn, chips and other snacks,
- ketchup, mayonnaise, soy sauce,
- instant coffee and all coffee drinks, for example, latte, frappuccino.
From ancient times, we received a variety of recipes for preserving and strengthening immunity, although the term denoting the body's defenses appeared in medical practice only in the 19th century. Increasing immunity with folk remedies in adults can be carried out in different ways. Here are the most effective recipes:
- Tincture of Echinacea. This plant is a real storehouse of nutrients. It effectively fights pathogenic microflora, viral and infectious diseases, stimulates the lymphatic system, removes toxins and toxins, helps eliminate pain and foci of inflammation. To increase immunity, 15-20 drops of this drug per day are enough for several weeks. Then you need to take a break and, if necessary, conduct a second course of treatment.
- Ginseng tincture. It can be prepared independently from the root and leaves, as well as purchased at a pharmacy. This is a powerful tool to strengthen the immune system, effective in the fight against pathogenic bacteria, strengthens the immune system, improves the hormonal, nervous, cardiovascular system, promotes the launch of tissue regeneration processes. The dosage regimen depends on the individual characteristics of the body.
- Tincture of Chinese Schisandra. This plant gives a good increase in immunity in adults, helps to improve mental work, activity and efficiency during the day, fights against germs, bacteria and viruses.
- Various herbal preparations. Medicinal herbs can be used in pure form or as part of drugs to strengthen immunity. Their proper use helps to improve well-being, get rid of many problems. There are many recipes using medicinal plants. Here is one of them: strawberry leaves, chamomile flowers and a string in equal quantities are mixed and poured with boiling water. On a spoonful of the mixture you need to take 200-250 ml of liquid. Insist in a glass jar with a lid until completely cooled, then strain and drink instead of tea.
- Honey and drinks with it. A recipe is especially effective for enhancing immunity with honey in tea with lemon juice. It is only important to remember that it is impossible to pour honey with boiling water. At temperatures above 45-50⁰C, substances harmful to the body are formed in it. In addition to honey, other beekeeping products will also be useful for immunity: royal jelly and propolis.
- Garlic and onion. These are ancient folk remedies to enhance immunity. Eating such foods rich in vitamins and minerals, carotene and other valuable substances will help not only increase immunity and survive the fight against viruses and infections, but also lower cholesterol, normalize blood pressure and improve the elimination of toxins.
- Tincture and use of fresh ginger root. This plant also has an immunostimulating property, improves blood circulation and the removal of toxins, promotes the launch of tissue repair and rejuvenation processes, gives a surge of vitality and strength.
If you do not know how to increase immunity at home in an adult, then all these recipes that can be used both for prevention and as part of complex therapy to strengthen immunity will help you. In any case, it is advisable to first consult with a specialist.
Often, to preserve health and stimulate the body's defenses, doctors prescribe the use of various medications:
- Vitamin and mineral complexes. You can choose the right drug to strengthen your immune system in any pharmacy, but it’s better to listen to the doctor’s recommendations and undergo a preliminary examination.
- Homeopathic remedies. As part of such preparations, extracts from medicinal herbs and plants, substances obtained from parts of animals. For example, Immunal and Aflubin.
- Bacterial enzymes. The most commonly prescribed are Ribomunil and Imudon.
- Immunostimulating agents with interferon in the composition. These are Arbidol, Viferon, Anaferon, Cycloferon and similar “ferons”. Such drugs to increase immunity help strengthen the immune system, accelerate the elimination of the disease.
- Thymus regulating drugs. These are Derinat, Timolin and Timostimulin.
- Biostimulants. This is aloe, FIBS, the vitreous. They improve the condition of a person, contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes.
It is important to remember that only a doctor can choose a treatment regimen and ways to increase immunity, based on your health condition, existing chronic diseases, as well as individual characteristics, for example, the presence or absence of excess weight and pregnancy, age and gender of a person.
As you can see, there are many different means to strengthen and increase the body's immunity. But no injections and pills can help, unless you change your lifestyle to a healthier one, learn to eat in a timely and balanced way, do gymnastics in the morning and go for a walk in any weather in the evenings. Only the introduction of such “healthy” habits and timely treatment of emerging diseases will help you to always be healthy and not experience immunity problems.
If you find an error, please select a piece of text and press Ctrl + Enter.
Bad habits and the immune system
Remember that bad habits are the worst enemy of immunity. Try to completely stop smoking and drinking alcohol. Tobacco contains poisons and toxins that destroy the body. In no case do not use narcotic substances, as they reduce the level of antibodies in the blood that resist viruses.
If you are not able to quit tobacco and alcohol, at least reduce their use to a reasonable minimum.
Sports and immunity
Doctors have proven that exercise strengthens the body. Go in for physical education, sports. But rationally dose the load, otherwise, instead of benefit, you can harm the body. Try to play sports in the fresh air, as occupations in a stuffy room can cause oxygen deficiency, and this, in turn, is harmful to the heart.
Horseradish, shrimp and bay leaf
It is nutrition that is the key to protection against viruses and diseases and the most important factor contributing to the improvement of the body's defenses. Nutrition should be as rational as possible in quantitative and qualitative terms. Your menu should contain animal and plant proteins. Animal proteins are found in meat, fish, eggs and milk, and vegetable proteins are found in peas, beans, buckwheat and oatmeal. Beef liver and seafood - shrimp, mussels, squid, have a beneficial effect on the immune system.
Spices are well supported by immunity - ginger, barberry, cloves, coriander, cinnamon, basil, cardamom, turmeric, bay leaf and horseradish.
We get vitamins
Vitamins and microelements are needed to strengthen immunity. Their deficiency can be filled with the help of multivitamin complexes, but in general it is better to get vitamins and minerals in a natural way.
Of the trace elements, zinc and selenium have a positive effect on the immune system. Zinc is found in fish, meat, liver, in the same nuts, in beans and peas. Selenium is worth “getting” from fish, seafood, garlic.
Minerals - iron, copper, magnesium and zinc - are found in the liver, kidneys, heart, nuts, legumes and chocolate.
It is necessary to prepare for any outbreak of the disease in advance, strengthening primarily non-specific protection. Everyone knows about such a method as hardening, but most are sure that hardening is a cold training, for example walking in the snow in shorts. But in fact, the essence of hardening is to quickly respond to a sharp change in temperature in the training of mucous membranes.
Pouring should be done daily - 5-7 minutes a day, morning or evening. This procedure is especially suitable for children.
Calm and only calm!
Stress is one of the main enemies of immunity. The most dangerous is an uncontrolled form of stress, when a person is unable to cope with his emotions. There is only one recipe for getting rid of mental upheavals: to form a calm attitude to everything, no matter what happens, and more often remind yourself that if you cannot change the situation, take it for granted.
If you are sometimes forced to experience stress, then compensate for it with laughter! Laughter affects the body as well as moderate physical activity: it lowers blood pressure, relieves stress and strengthens the immune system. In addition, laughter improves your appetite, lowers cholesterol, reduces the risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system and diabetes.
Get a cat
It is believed that cats increase the immunity of their owners, protect them from heart disease, have a beneficial effect on the nervous system. The cat's body temperature is 38–39 degrees, and if a person has a cold, then a purring cat, laying nearby, warms up the body and as a result helps to cope with colds and increases its owner's resistance to stress.
Cats from ancient times have become the most popular and beloved pets. The love for them was so great that a special holiday was established for pets - World Cat Day, which is celebrated on the first day of spring, March 1.
Vitamins and the immune system
Healthy eating is the foundation of good immunity. In order for the immune system to be in order, it is necessary to provide the body with all the necessary substances: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, trace elements. A lack of one substance can dramatically lower immunity. Be sure to take vitamin and mineral complexes.
Immunity Boosting Products
Be sure to include fresh vegetables and fruits in your diet. They are not only tasty, but also rich in a number of useful substances that have the ability to neutralize the effect of free radicals. Eat nuts. Maintain the intestinal microflora. To do this, use dairy products, especially natural yogurt.
Minimize the proportion of “heavy” fatty foods in your diet — pork, lard, home-made sausages, and smoked meats. Similarly, reduce your intake of sugary foods that are high in sugar.
Even if you are very fond of such food, show willpower, because it is about your health.
Medically enhanced immunity
To increase immunity, take immunostimulants. The main defender of the body is vitamin C. But do not abuse it (daily dose should not exceed 1.5 g). Also, your body needs amino acids, such as arginine. In any case, a drug aimed at increasing the body should be taken only after consulting a specialist.
How does immunity change in old age
The thymus gland is responsible for the formation of immunity in the human body. With age, it decreases, and by the age of 70, the protective functions of the body make up only 2-5% of the same indicators of a growing person.
The thymus gland is located above the human heart. It is in it that lymphocytes are born and develop, which provide protection against foreign antigens and regulate the body's immune system. This miracle gland actively develops only until adolescence, and then its so-called reverse growth sets in.
When a certain age is reached, changes in the thymus gland cease altogether and the protective functions of the body practically disappear, the formation of new cells and the updating of existing cells no longer occur. If we talk about external signs of a decrease in the activity of the vital gland, this is wilting of the skin, the formation of wrinkles on its surface, fragility of hair and nails, the appearance of a number of chronic diseases of internal organs and a significant decrease in the tone of the whole organism. This is due, of course, to the lack of the former protective functions of the immune system.
Prevention of immunity reduction for the elderly
In order to prevent a decrease in immunity, it is very important to take preventive measures. First of all, you need to continue to lead an active lifestyle. After retirement, many people prefer to watch TV, sitting comfortably on their favorite couch, but this should not be done in any case. Every day you need to take walks, more often to be in the fresh air, to perform physical exercises.
An excellent prevention is the intake of vitamin complexes. But only a medical specialist can prescribe them. It is not recommended to make a choice on your own or on the advice of friends and acquaintances, since each person’s body is unique, and additional support should be selected individually, after a detailed medical examination and identification of the most serious problems that need to be addressed immediately.
With the onset of old age, you need to reconsider the diet, get rid of bad habits, minimize emotional stress and be sure to get enough sleep. Compliance with these rules will help to maintain health and activity for many years.
Methods of strengthening immunity in old age
In the case of clear signs of reduced immunity, when preventive measures have not been taken or were insufficient, more serious support is required. Many chronic diseases of the internal organs acquired at an earlier age make themselves felt and develop especially actively after 60 years. In most cases, hospitalization and medical supervision is required. Along with the main treatment, special drugs are prescribed, mainly created on the basis of substances of plant origin with the addition of certain groups of minerals and immunomodulators.
Fortunately, not all elderly people need such extreme measures. Most often, the doctor selects vitamin therapy, signs a strict diet and diet, establishes monitoring of the patient's condition.
- How to strengthen the immunity of older people
- Features of the immunity of the elderly